ENGLISHKITA Communication

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Mom, what was the website you downloaded me called?

http://www.funny-games.biz/pictures/974-internet-generation.html

Story 1. RESPECT

Respect means being thoughtful of or showing regard for another person or thing. Respect also includes treating everyone and everything, including yourself with dignity. When you show yourself respect it is called self-respect. Self-respect is what allows a person to act in positive ways and to stand up to harmful or hurtful actions.

We are all different. We look different. Some of us come from different cultures. Some of us are able to do things other people can’t. It is important for all of us to treat each other respectfully despite our differences, as we all have similar needs and feelings.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Treat others like you want to be treated
  2. Be thoughtful of the feelings of others
  3. Accept those who are different from yourself
  4. Be fair
  5. Don’t swear
  6. Be polite to others
  7. Try to show good manners by saying please and thank you
  8. Be patient with others when they make mistakes

Da Grouchy Moocher Boogie Man

Hawai’i
Written by: Prince Maiava
Retold by Kody A.

Many years ago, a grouchy old homeless man lived in a dirty cardboard box next to some bushes. He survived by eating the leftovers that people threw into the garbage. Everyday, he would take a trip into town. The neighborhood kids were afraid of him because of the way he looked. His clothes were torn and very dirty. He wore a hat that had a hole by his eye. He would use this hole to peek through as he walked while holding his crooked cane. If there was anyone in his way as he walked, he would grunt and wave the cane high in the air causing those in his path to quickly move far away.

On his way back he would stop by a stream and sit under the shade of the tree. A little girl lived near this stream and saw the grouchy old homeless man as he sat, so she went to talk to him. She offered him some of the sweet cookies and water that she had with her. The grouchy old man just grunted. Remembering that she had something to do, she scolded the homeless man saying, “You better eat all of those cookies by the time I get back!” As soon as she left, the homeless man ate and drank everything. When the little girl returned she was happy because she noticed that all of the food was finished.

The homeless man smiled at her and went back to his garbage home made from cardboard boxes.

Everyday, the girl would visit the homeless man by the stream. She would always bring him something to eat. One day though, the little girl found out that she was going away later that day on a trip. Hearing the news, she hurried to the stream to look for the homeless man but he wasn’t there. She left a sandwich and a note saying where she was going and didn’t know when she would be back. When the homeless man arrived at the stream, he read the note and started to cry. The homeless man waited everyday under the tree for the little girl. Weeks turned into months, but still the homeless man went to the tree daily to wait. After a cold and rainy night, the homeless man got sick and became very ill. He hardly ever went into town because he was very weak. On a rare trip into town, he collapsed. A crowd gathered around him and stared. The little girl who recently returned from her trip wondered what the crowd was looking at and went to investigate. She saw the homeless man lying on the ground so she quickly pushed her way to the front of the crowd so she could help the homeless man. Seeing the little girl, the homeless man reached into his dirty clothes and gave her a doll and died. The little girl cried.

Wherever the little girl went, she brought the doll with her. One day, the little girl’s mother noticed that the doll was falling apart and needed to be repaired. She started to patch it up and noticed a note hidden inside the doll. It was the homeless man’s “will.” It turns out that he was very wealthy and he wanted all his money to go to building a beautiful school for children.

To this day, the school stands near the stream where the homeless man visited. He can now look down from heaven upon the happy children that attend the school created because of a little girl that showed respect and sympathy for a lonely homeless man.

Responsibility means being accountable for your own words and actions. Responsibility is a character trait that develops over time. We all must learn to be responsible for our actions and realize that our actions are important for maintaining and improving our community, friendships, families, school, and the world.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Stop and think before you act
  2. Accept personal responsibility for your behavior
  3. Be organized
  4. Correct your mistakes
  5. Keep your promises and commitments
  6. Be reliable
  7. Do your chores without being told
  8. Try to keep all of your promises

The Story of the Crow and the Hawk

A Pueblo story
Retold by Shane S.

Once there was a beautiful black crow who had a nest on the side of a rocky hillside. She was proud of her nest filled with eggs. She sat waiting for her eggs to hatch. The crow sat and sat but nothing happened. She sat some more but still nothing happened. The crow got tired and flew away leaving her eggs unguarded.

After awhile a hawk flew by and swooped over the nest filled with eggs. The hawk swooped again trying to spot the mother bird. On her third attempt to spot the mother bird the hawk said to herself, “The mother of these eggs no longer cares for these poor little eggs. I shall sit on them until the mother returns.”

The hawk sat on the eggs but nobody came. For days she took care of the eggs by keeping them warm and safe until one day they began to hatch. As the little crows pushed their way out of their shells they chirped and called for their mother, but the crow did not come.

The hawk told the little crows that she would look after them. She went looking for food and she protected them everyday. The baby crows grew bigger and bigger. Their black feathers became glossy and strong.

One day the irresponsible Crow was flying over the nest that she had abandoned when she saw a Hawk taking care of her baby crows. Crow screeched as she swooped down to her nest, “How dare you, Hawk!” Surprised, Hawk replied, “What’s wrong?” “I want my babies back. They are mine!” said Crow. Hawk was upset and thought silently about what had just happened. Then Hawk calmly tried to make a point to Crow that yes, she had laid the eggs but she also had abandoned them when they needed her most. Hawk explained that she was the one that took care of them and was not going to give them up.
Crow kept insisting that she wanted her little crows back, but the Hawk kept saying that she could not have them back. Crow said let’s take this to the King of Birds, the Eagle, and see what he says.

Hawk thought it was a fine idea. When they went to Eagle and told him the story Eagle asked, “Why did you leave your nest Crow?” Crow said nothing. Eagle asked Hawk, “How did you come upon the eggs?” Hawk answered, “I was out flying one day and saw a nest full of eggs with no one caring for them. I waited to see if someone would come, but no one ever came.”
Crow replied that since she had laid the eggs she was the mother. But Hawk explained that since the crow left them in their time of need, and she had sat on the eggs, hatched them, and took care of them, she was the babies’ mother. “Why don’t we ask the babies who their mother is?” said Crow. So the King of Birds asked the baby crows and they said, “Hawk is the only bird we call mother.”
“No, I am your real mother!” protested Crow.
“It is settled,” said the King of Birds “the baby crows will stay with Hawk.” “No! It’s not fair!” yelled Crow. “I hope you learned your lesson,” said the Eagle, “things can be lost when we don’t show responsibility.”

Story 3. COOPERATION

Cooperation is the act of cooperating or working together. When we work together we can learn a great deal from each other. Working as a team, we can combine all of our abilities and energies to accomplish things we never could have done alone.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Encourage others
  2. Allow others to contribute their talents and skills
  3. Be a leader as well as a follower
  4. Treat everyone equally
  5. Communicate calmly
  6. Put competition aside
  7. Be fair
  8. Be flexible when a group is in disagreement.

The Story of the Mori Clan

Japan
Retold by Jacob K.

During the fifteenth century in Japan there was a ruler named Mori Motonari, and he had three sons. The three sons had different character strengths. The oldest son was virtuous. The second son was brave. The third son was wise. One day, their father brought his three sons together and showed them an arrow. He bent it and it easily broke.

He then gathered three arrows together and tried to bend it. The arrows were able to bend but they wouldn’t break. Using the arrows, Mori was trying to teach his sons a lesson. He wanted them to learn to cooperate. If the three sons worked together their clan would become strong like the three arrows.

As the three sons worked together they soon conquered a large portion of Western Japan. Later an enemy named Hideyoshi Toyotomi attacked the Mori clan but failed.

Story 4. HONESTY

To be honest means you do not lie, cheat or steal. It also deals with the way we conduct ourselves.

It is easy to say, “Everyone else does it. So why can’t I?” This attitude often occurs when it comes to schoolwork, tests, sports and other forms of competition. We need to go back to remembering that these actions aren’t right and we should value honesty.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Do not lie
  2. Do not cheat
  3. Do not steal
  4. Be honest even if everyone around you is being dishonest
  5. Do not spread gossip about people
  6. Admit to a mistake you’ve made and apologize 

The Empty Pot

China
Retold by Bryson T.

Long ago there was a boy who lived in China. His name was Ping. Ping loved flowers. Ping was gifted because he could make any plant grow. The Emperor of China also loved flowers and spent much of his time in his garden. But the Emperor was getting old and needed someone to take over the throne and rule fairly over his kingdom when he was gone. Since the Emperor loved flowers, he decided to let the flowers decide who would be the next ruler.

The next day the Emperor gathered all of the children to his palace and gave each child a seed to grow. The Emperor said, “Whoever comes back with the most beautiful flowers will take over as Emperor. As Ping received his seed he knew he would win.

When Ping went home, he put the seed into a pot and filled it with good soil. He watered it everyday and made sure the seed had a lot of sunshine. Ping was impatient. He wanted to see a sprout grow to a wonderful flower. Days passed and Ping did not see anything grow. Ping transferred the seed to a bigger pot and added richer soil. Ping carefully watered it and gave it some sun. Still nothing happened. Finally Ping put the seed into a better pot with the richest fertile soil. Ping continued to care for the seed by giving it water and sun. Months passed but still nothing happened, nothing grew.

Finally the time was up. All of the children returned to the Emperor’s palace with their flowers. As Ping walked in with his empty pot, Ping’s friends arrived with beautiful lilies, roses, and sunflowers. Ping’s friends thought Ping’s empty pot was a joke. They asked, “Where is your flower?” A tear slowly ran down Ping’s face. Ping wondered to himself, “Why didn’t my seed grow?” I’ve grown a lot of seeds before.” Ping’s father approached his son and said, “You did the best that you could do. Take your empty pot and show the Emperor.

Ping stood in line to see the Emperor. When, it was Ping’s turn, the Emperor asked Ping, “Why did you come here with an empty pot?” While crying Ping said, “I planted the seed you gave me. I gave it rich fertile soil and watered it everyday but it would not grow.” The Emperor smiled and said “I’ve found the new Emperor! It is an honest boy!” The Emperor spoke to the children, “The seeds I gave to everyone were cooked and not able to grow. I don’t know where all these flowers came from. Ping was the only truthful one. Because of his courage and honesty I reward him my Kingdom and all of its beauty!”

Story 5. FRIENDSHIP

Love is a deep and tender feeling of fondness, loyalty, and unselfish kindly concern for the good of another. Friendship also fits the same definition of love.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Accept others for who they are
  2. Listen as well as learn from each other
  3. Enjoy each others’ company
  4. Make new friends
  5. Give compliments to others
  6. Support others in need
  7. Smile, laugh, and tell jokes
  8. Avoid teasing and put-downs
  9. Encourage each other with kind words
  10. Tell your family you love them

The Rabbit In the Moon

India
Retold by: Chanell Sagon

Long, long, ago there were three animal friends – a monkey, a rabbit, and a fox – who lived in a mountain forest. One day, a supernatural being came down to earth disguised as a beggar. He traveled through many villages and towns but no one would help him. The beggar heard of the three animal friends and decided to visit them.

When they saw the beggar, they felt pity for him. The beggar said “I have heard that the three of you are very friendly. Please help me! I have not eaten for many days!” Hearing this, the three friends hurried away to find food for the beggar. The monkey quickly returned with fresh fruits from the forest. The fox caught some fish from the river. The rabbit, however, searched throughout the forest but sadly returned with nothing. He told the beggar he was sorry that he wasn’t as talented and lacked the wisdom that his friends had. Then the rabbit had an idea and asked his friends to gather dry twigs and pile it up for him. When they were done bringing the twigs he asked the fox to set the twigs on the fire. The rabbit then hugged his friends and jumped into the fire before anyone could do anything. While jumping into the flames he cried out to the beggar, ” Please wait till my body is cooked and then eat it.” The beggar was shocked. He took the body of the friendly rabbit out of the fire and placed it against his heart.

Then the two of them rose into the sky up to the moon where the supernatural being built a wonderful palace for the rabbit that sacrificed himself to a friendly stranger in need. Till this day you can still see the rabbit in the moon!

Story 6. COMPASSION

Compassion is a feeling of sympathy or pity. When you are compassionate you are sympathetic towards others in sorrow or hardship.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Recognize and express appreciation for others’ talents and skills
  2. Put other peoples’ needs before your own wants
  3. Help others because you want to, not because you have to
  4. Listen and provide a “shoulder to cry on” for your friends who need it
  5. Show kindness to others without expecting rewards
  6. Tell and show others that you care
  7. Share
  8. Help the elderly
  9. Recognize and help those less fortunate than yourself

The Law of the Splintered Paddle

Hawai’i
Retold By: Clinton T.

King Kamehameha, ruler of Hawaii was building a temple and needed people to sacrifice as an offering to the gods.

It was believed that the more bodies sacrificed, the more powerful the temple would be. One day, as Kamehameha and his servants searched for bodies to sacrifice, they saw two lawai’i (fishermen) walking along a reef. Kamehameha thought that they would be easy to capture.

As Kamehameha approached the fishermen, they suddenly turned and ran away as fast as possible. While chasing the two fishermen, Kamehameha tripped and fell. One of the fishermen, quickly grabbed his wa’a paddle (canoe paddle) and whacked Kamehameha on the head causing the paddle to splinter.

He could have easily killed Kamehameha if he wanted to. When asked by the other fisherman why he didn’t kill his attacker, he answered, “Life is sacred.”
Although dazed by the whack on the head, Kamehameha heard the conversation between the two fishermen and realized that they didn’t know he was their chief and they could have very easily killed him. Kamehameha was so impressed with the fisherman’s compassion that he ended the practice of using human sacrifices.

This law became known as the Law of the Splintered Paddle which assured the safety of all the Hawaiian people!

Story 7. ENVIRONMENT AWARENESS/CARING

Caring for someone or something may be the most natural character trait that we learn. Caring about a person or a tree, allows us to feel powerful, needed and appreciated. Environmental awareness is understanding that there are many things that determine the survival of the natural environment. When we make an effort to recycle, reduce, and reuse, we are being an environmentally aware person preserving the land for future generations.

Good Rules to Follow

  1. Take care of the land so we can preserve the land for future generations
  2. Practice the 3 Rs: Recycle, Reuse, and Reduce
  3. Don’t litter
  4. Preserve native plants and animals
  5. Volunteer to pick up litter
  6. Take shorter showers 7.G
  7. Give away rather than throw away unneeded items.

Why the Sky is So Far Away

Nigeria
Retold by: Clinton T.
A very, very long time ago, the sky was so close to earth people could touch it. The sky tasted delicious. It tasted like different things such as, sweet potato, roasted meat, turkey, vegetables, and delicious sweet fruits. Since people ate from the sky, they didn’t have to work to harvest crops. During their spare time, people would weave clothes, carve, tell stories and even sing. As festival season approached, King Oba’s servants would carve wonderful sculptures for the festivities. But the sky became angry because people did not take care of the sky. People took more than they could eat and just threw away what they did not eat. The sky grew angrier and angrier because people continued to be wasteful and forgot how precious the sky was.

The Sky told Oba that if his people wasted anymore of him he would rise high and his people will not be able reach the delicious food that came from him.
Immediately, Oba sent messengers to tell everyone what the sky said. So everyone was very careful, they took only what they would eat. But there was one woman who was never satisfied with what she had. She always wanted more than what she needed.

During the last night of the festival, the woman and her husband ate & danced all night. When she returned home she was hungry and wanted food. She reached to the sky and took a huge chunk and started to eat it. After a few bites she started to feel full. Quickly, she ran and asked her husband and children to help her finish the huge chunk. But, they only nibbled. So, she decided to just throw the rest away.

Seeing what happened, the sky lifted itself higher out of the reach of people. This is where it is today and from that day on, people had to work and harvest their own food.

 

Writing is an important form of communication. Good writers use different writing techniques to fit their purpose for writing. To be a good writer, you must master each of the following writing techniques.

1. Description

Through description, a writer helps the reader use the senses of feeling, seeing, hearing, smelling, and tasting to experience what the writer experiences. Description helps the reader more clearly understand the people, places, and things about which the writer is writing. It is the most common form of writing. You will find descriptive writing in newspapers, magazines, books, and most other forms of written communication.

2. Exposition

Through exposition , a writer informs, explains, and clarifies his/her ideas and thoughts. Exposition goes beyond description to help the reader understand with greater clarity and depth the ideas and thoughts of the writer. Expository writing, like descriptive writing, is commonly found in newspapers, magazines, books, and most other forms of written communication.

3. Narration

Through narration, a writer tells a story. A story has characters, a setting, a time, a problem, attempts at solving the problem, and a solution to the problem. Bedtime stories are examples of short stories while novels are examples of long stories. The scripts written for movies and plays are further examples of narrative writing.

4. Persuasion

Through persuasion , a writer tries to change a reader’s point of view on a topic, subject, or position. The writer presents facts and opinions to get the reader to understand why something is right, wrong, or in between. Editorials, letters to the editor in newspapers and magazines, and the text for a political speech are examples of persuasive writing.

5. Comparison and Contrast

Through comparison and contrast , a writer points out the similarities and differences about a topic. Comparison is used to show what is alike or in common. Contrast is used to show what is not alike or not in common. Describing living conditions in 1900 and living conditions today would allow for much comparison and contrast.

By using the writing technique that fits your purpose, you will be able to communicate your ideas effectively.

 

Foreign or second language (L2) learning strategies are specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques students use — often consciously — to improve their progress in apprehending, internalizing, and using the L2 (Oxford, 1990b). For example, Lazlo seeks out conversation partners. Oke groups words to be learned and then labels each group. Ahmed uses gestures to communicate in the classroom when the words do not come to mind. Mai Qi learns words by breaking them down into their components. Young consciously uses guessing when she reads. Strategies are the tools for active, self-directed involvement needed for developing L2 communicative ability (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990). Research has repeatedly shown that the conscious, tailored use of such strategies is related to language achievement and proficiency.

Early researchers tended to make lists of strategies and other features presumed to be essential for all “good L2 learners.” Rubin (1975) suggested that good L2 learners are willing and accurate guessers; have a strong drive to communicate; are often uninhibited; are willing to make mistakes; focus on form by looking for patterns and analyzing; take advantage of all practice opportunities; monitor their speech as well as that of others; and pay attention to meaning.

A number of these characteristics have been validated by subsequent research. However, the “uninhibited” aspect has not been confirmed as part of all or most good language learners. Because of language anxiety, many potentially excellent L2 learners are naturally inhibited; they combat inhibition by using positive self-talk, by extensive use of practicing in private, and by putting themselves in situations where they have to participate communicatively.

Naiman, Frohlich, and Todesco (1975) made a list of strategies used by successful L2 learners, adding that they learn to think in the language and address the affective aspects of language acquisition. For additional lists of strategies used by good language learners, see Ramirez (1986) and Reiss (1985).

Effectiveness and Orchestration of L2 Learning Strategies

Research supports the effectiveness of using L2 learning strategies and has shown that successful language learners often use strategies in an orchestrated fashion. Some findings are listed below:

  • Use of appropriate language learning strategies often results in improved proficiency or achievement overall or in specific skill areas (Oxford et al., 1993; Thompson & Rubin, 1993).
  • Successful language learners tend to select strategies that work well together in a highly orchestrated way, tailored to the requirements of the language task (Chamot & Kupper, 1989). These learners can easily explain the strategies they use and why they employ them (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990).
  • Cognitive (e.g., translating, analyzing) and metacognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) strategies are often used together, supporting each other (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990). Well tailored combinations of strategies often have more impact than single strategies.
  • Certain strategies or clusters of strategies are linked to particular language skills or tasks. For example, L2 writing, like L1 writing, benefits from the learning strategies of planning, self-monitoring, deduction, and substitution. L2 speaking demands strategies such as risk-taking, paraphrasing, circumlocution, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation. L2 listening comprehension gains from strategies of elaboration, inferencing, selective attention, and self-monitoring, while reading comprehension uses strategies like reading aloud, guessing, deduction, and summarizing (Chamot & Kupper, 1989). See Oxford (1990b) for a detailed chart that maps relevant strategies with listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills.
  • The powerful social and affective strategies are found less often in L2 research. This is, perhaps, because these behaviors are not studied frequently by L2 researchers, and because learners are not familiar with paying attention to their own feelings and social relationships as part of the L2 learning process (Oxford, 1990b).

Factors Influencing the Choice of L2 Learning Strategies

Oxford (1990a) synthesized existing research on how the following factors influence the choice of strategies used among students learning a second language.

Motivation. More motivated students tended to use more strategies than less motivated students, and the particular reason for studying the language (motivational orientation, especially as related to career field) was important in the choice of strategies.

Gender. Females reported greater overall strategy use than males in many studies (although sometimes males surpassed females in the use of a particular strategy).

Cultural background. Rote memorization and other forms of memorization were more prevalent among some Asian students than among students from other cultural backgrounds. Certain other cultures also appeared to encourage this strategy among learners.

Attitudes and beliefs. These were reported to have a profound effect on the strategies learners choose, with negative attitudes and beliefs often causing poor strategy use or lack of orchestration of strategies.

Type of task. The nature of the task helped determine the strategies naturally employed to carry out the task.

Age and l2 stage. Students of different ages and stages of L2 learning used different strategies, with certain strategies often being employed by older or more advanced students.

Learning style. Learning style (general approach to language learning) often determined the choice of L2 learning strategies. For example, analytic-style students preferred strategies such as contrastive analysis, rule-learning, and dissecting words and phrases, while global students used strategies to find meaning (guessing, scanning, predicting) and to converse without knowing all the words (paraphrasing, gesturing).

Tolerance of ambiguity. Students who were more tolerant of ambiguity used significantly different learning strategies in some instances than did students who were less tolerant of ambiguity.

L2 Strategy Training

Considerable research has been conducted on how to improve L2 students’ learning strategies. In many investigations, attempts to teach students to use learning strategies (called strategy training or learner training) have produced good results (Thompson & Rubin, 1993). However, not all L2 strategy training studies have been successful or conclusive. Some training has been effective in various skill areas but not in others, even within the same study. (For details of studies, see Oxford & Crookall, 1989.)

Based on L2 strategy training research, the following principles have been tentatively suggested, subject to further investigation:

  • L2 strategy training should be based clearly on students’ attitudes, beliefs, and stated needs.
  • Strategies should be chosen so that they mesh with and support each other and so that they fit the requirements of the language task, the learners’ goals, and the learners’ style of learning.
  • Training should, if possible, be integrated into regular L2 activities over a long period of time rather than taught as a separate, short intervention.
  • Students should have plenty of opportunities for strategy training during language classes.
  • Strategy training should include explanations, handouts, activities, brainstorming, and materials for reference and home study.
  • Affective issues such as anxiety, motivation, beliefs, and interests — all of which influence strategy choice — should be directly addressed by L2 strategy training.
  • Strategy training should be explicit, overt, and relevant and should provide plenty of practice with varied L2 tasks involving authentic materials.
  • Strategy training should not be solely tied to the class at hand; it should provide strategies that are transferable to future language tasks beyond a given class.
  • Strategy training should be somewhat individualized, as different students prefer or need certain strategies for particular tasks.
  • Strategy training should provide students with a mechanism to evaluate their own progress and to evaluate the success of the training and the value of the strategies in multiple tasks.

Problems in Classifying Strategies

Almost two dozen L2 strategy classification systems have been divided into the following groups: (1) systems related to successful language learners (Rubin, 1975); (2) systems based on psychological functions (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990); (3) linguistically based systems dealing with guessing, language monitoring, formal and functional practice (Bialystok, 1981) or with communication strategies like paraphrasing or borrowing (Tarone, 1983); (4) systems related to separate language skills (Cohen, 1990); and (5) systems based on different styles or types of learners (Sutter, 1989). The existence of these distinct strategy typologies indicates a major problem in the research area of L2 learning strategies: lack of a coherent, well accepted system for describing these strategies.

Implications

Researchers must reconceptualize L2 learning strategies to include the social and affective sides of learning along with the more intellectual sides. The L2 learner is not just a cognitive and metacognitive machine but, rather, a whole person. In strategy training, teachers should help students develop affective and social strategies, as well as intellectually related strategies, based on their individual learning styles, current strategy use, and specific goals.

Research should be replicated so more consistent information becomes available within and across groups of learners. Particularly important is information on how students from different cultural backgrounds use language learning strategies. L2 teachers need to feel confident that the research is applicable to their students.

More research on factors affecting strategy choice would be helpful. Learning style is an important factor, along with gender, age, nationality or ethnicity, beliefs, previous educational and cultural experiences, and learning goals. Additionally, it is likely that different kinds of learners (e.g., analytic vs. global or visual vs. auditory) might benefit from different modes of strategy training.

Teachers must have training relevant to their own instructional situations in three areas: identifying students’ current learning strategies through surveys, interviews, or other means; helping individual students discern which strategies are most relevant to their learning styles, tasks, and goals; and aiding students in developing orchestrated strategy use rather than a scattered approach. (By Rebecca Oxford, University of Alabama, 2004)

References

Bialystok, E. (1981). The role of conscious strategies in second language proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 65, 24-35.

Chamot, A.U., & Kupper. L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24.

Cohen, A.D. (1990). Language learning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., & Todesco, A. (1975). The good second language learner. TESL Talk, 6, 58-75.

O’Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R.L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training.System, 17, 235-247.

Oxford, R.L. (1990a). Language learning strategies and beyond: A look at strategies in the context of styles. In S.S. Magnan (Ed.),Shifting the instructional focus to the learner (pp. 35-55). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

Oxford, R.L. (1990b). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R.L., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and instructional issues. Modern Language Journal, 73, 404-419.

Oxford, R.L., Park-Oh, Y., Ito, S. & Sumrall, M. (1993). Learning Japanese by satellite: What influences student achievement?System, 21, 31-48.

Ramirez, A. (1986). Language learning strategies used by adolescents studying French in New York schools. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 131-141.

Reiss, M.A. (1985). The good language learners: Another look.Canadian Modern Language Review, 41, 511-23.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us.TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

Sutter, W. (1989). Strategies and styles. Aalborg, Denmark: Danish Refugee Council.

Tarone, E. (1983). Some thoughts on the notion of “communication strategy.” In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp. 61-74). London: Longman.

Thompson, I., & Rubin, J. (1993). Improving listening comprehension in Russian. Washington, DC: Department of Education, International Research and Studies Program.

 


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